The following are collections of resources regarding additional groups of refugee and immigrants that don’t have a full culture profile page on the EthnoMed website.

Also view additional resources for providers and for patients using the tabs above.


A New Life and New Tools video – Karen
19 minute 21 second video about the importance of cervical cancer screening, culturally tailored for Karen women unfamiliar with western health systems. The video highlights the importance of screening, how to get an appointment and ask for an interpreter and/or woman doctor, and what happens during a cervical cancer screening appointment. Includes Karen and English video scripts.

Consider Lead and Other Heavy Metal Toxicities in the Evaluation of Nonspecific Symptoms
A short clinical pearl about the need to consider the prevalence of high lead levels among recently arrived Burmese.

Evaluation of Tuberculosis Program Services for Burmese Refugees in Thailand Resettling to the United States
A 58-page PDF report on an evaluation of tuberculosis services developed following an outbreak of MDR TB among a group of 15,000 displaced Laotian Hmong living in Thailand, to determine their impact on the effectiveness of the overseas screening of similar populations granted refugee status by the U.S. Government. The assessment was conducted at an IOM screening program established for Burmese refugees living in the Mae La Displaced Persons Camp on the Thai-Burmese border, in order to to provide recommendations to the IOM for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of refugees resettling to the U.S. from Thailand, and to provide recommendations to CDC’s DGMQ and DTBE for improving the effectiveness and practicality of the 2007 new tuberculosis Technical Instructions.

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Fact Sheet – Burmese
Information fact sheet (1 page PDF) about pertussis (whooping cough) in Burmese language.

Working with Refugees from Burma to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning
Information presented by the New York State Department of Health on the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning among recent Burmese refugees, and prevention issues specific to this population. Includes a discussion of some of the cultural and health practices common among Burmese refugees.

Burmese Refugee Health Profile - CDC
The CDC has completed a Burmese Refugee Health Profile. The Burmese have been coming to the United States for longer than some refugee groups, so many of their health concerns may be well-known. The information provided in this refugee health profile is intended to help resettlement agencies, clinicians, and providers understand the cultural background and health issues of greatest interest/concern pertaining to resettling Burmese refugee populations. The following health conditions are considered priority health conditions when caring for or assisting Burmese refugees: hepatitis B and intestinal parasites.


Congolese Refugees in the United States Video
This 33-minute video includes interviews with refugees and community leaders from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and refugee service providers, speaking about the resettlement experiences of newly-arrived and previously resettled refugees from the DRC. Topics addressed include employment opportunities, experience learning English in the United States, education for children and adults, inter-ethnic co-existence, family adjustment, emotional health, and other matters that affect the refugees’ daily lives

For Congolese Refugees: An Introduction to Healthcare in the U.S.
A video series from the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) for Congolese refugees are narrated in Kiswahili. “Introduction to Healthcare in the U.S.” explains the role of healthcare providers, preventive care, and health insurance. “Your Body Before, During and After Pregnancy” is a two-part video that describes the female reproductive system, prenatal care, pregnancy, birth, and birth control methods. “Men Speak: Helping Women Heal” is a dramatic skit with two Congolese men talking about the gender-based violence inflicted on their wives before resettlement and moving towards a path of healing. “Women Speak: Finding Wellness After War” is a two-part dramatic skit with Congolese women in a support group talking about the gender-based violence they have experienced and finding strength in each other.

Experiences of Refugee Women and Girls from the Democratic Republic of Congo
International Rescue Committee (IRC) backgrounder on Congolese women and girls.

Refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo - COR Center
This backgrounder provides basic information about Congolese refugee arrivals. It addresses the causes of the refugee crisis, life in the DRC and countries of asylum, the background characteristics of the refugees, and Congolese resettlement experiences in the United States, as well as strengths incoming Congolese refugees bring and issues that may present particular challenges for them.

Resettlement Support Center for Africa
The Resettlement Support Center (RSC) Africa is responsible for the processing of refugees throughout Sub-Saharan Africa for possible admission to the United States. An increasing percentage of the RSC Africa caseload is comprised of refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a diverse country with some 250 ethnic groups and 700 languages

Congolese Refugee Health Profile
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has produced a Congolese health profile, addressing the population’s priority health conditions, background, population movements, healthcare access and conditions in refugee camps, medical screening of U.S.-bound refugees, post-arrival medical screening, and health information.

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Country Conditions Report
This report provides historical timelines, brief descriptions of common methods of torture, and synopses of current conditions and pertinent issues related to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (has an updated timeline as of August 2015).


Health Care Coverage

Health Care Coverage is now available for COFA Islanders. Starting January 1, 2019, the WA State Health Care Authority will be paying the monthly premiums and out-of-pocket expenses for silver level Qualified Health Plans for Compact of Free Association (COFA) islanders. COFA islanders include people from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau.

Download PDF flyer with more information.


“Between 1946 and 1958, the U.S. detonated 67 nuclear devices in and around the Marshall Islands. The impact of these tests on the Marshallese people was profound – in terms of both actual radioactive exposure and the displacement of people from their home islands due to contamination and to accommodate the U.S. military.” –California Newsreel

Their traditional diet and way of life disrupted by globalization and the American military presence in the equatorial Pacific, Marshall Islanders now struggle with high rates of diabetes, among other health problems.” -California Newsreel

“Dise Langrus is one of many Marshallese who were relocated from their home islands 40 years ago after U.S. nuclear testing rendered it uninhabitable. Others were moved to make room for the construction of the U.S. military base on Kwajalein Island. Today, the Marshallese confront the worst of the “developing” and urbanized worlds: infectious disease running rampant because of poverty and squalid conditions and chronic illnesses resulting in part from the stress of dislocation and cultural loss.”–California Newsreel

Health Education Materials


Marshallese translation of Take Charge of Your Diabetes – a Reinforcement Booklet for People with Diabetes, from the resource library of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health Diabetes – Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion Division

Marshallese - Pacific Diabetes Education Program was a five-year project (2005-2010) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve the availability and dissemination of culturally and linguistically appropriate diabetes education materials. The website provides access diabetes education materials and resources that were created especially for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

: Health education videos recorded in Marshallese with English subtitles on topics of glucose testing and diabetes medication. The Center for Pacific Islander Health is a multi-disciplinary center at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) Northwest in Fayetteville, Arkansas focusing on research, community programs, training, and policy.


Marshallese - Health Information Translations from health education materials in many languages, including Marshallese, via a website collaboration of health education specialists from the four health systems in Central Ohio.

Health Information in Marshallese (Ebon): MedlinePlus:  trusted health Information in Marshallese (Ebon) from the National Library of Medicine’s consumer health information website.

: links to health education materials in many languages, including Marshallese, gathered by the Utah Dept. of Health.

Cultural Profiles on Related Websites

Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS)
BRYCS aims to strengthen the capacity of refugee-serving and mainstream organizations across the U.S. to empower and ensure the successful development of refugee children, youth, and their families. In providing technical assistance and maintaining the nation’s largest online collection of resources related to refugee and immigrant children and families, BRYCS increases public awareness and facilitates knowledge building, information sharing and collaboration among a diverse group of service providers, including child welfare, schools, refugee resettlement agencies, and ethnic and community-based organizations.

Refugee Health Profiles - CDC
This information is provided to help clinicians, public health providers, and resettlement agencies facilitate medical screening, and determine appropriate interventions and services for individuals of a specific refugee group. Each profile is a comprehensive resource describing the demographic, cultural, and health characteristics of specific population. The information in these profiles is intended to equip clinicians and others with the knowledge necessary to better serve refugees. This knowledge will allow providers to approach a refugee with an improved understanding of where they come from, the circumstances of their displacement, living conditions during asylum, and health conditions for which they may be at increased risk.

Country Condition Reports and Refugee Wellness Country Guides - GCJFCS
The Gulf Coast Jewish Family and Community Services (GCJFCS) has produced reports that provide historical timelines, brief descriptions of common methods of torture, and synopses of current conditions and pertinent issues related to each country featured.

Refugee Backgrounders - Cultural Orientation Resource (COR) Center
The COR Center produces culture profiles and refugee backgrounders on the people, history and culture of different refugee groups to help U.S. service providers understand new refugee populations.

Cultural Profiles include: Refugees from Burma; Meskhetian Turks; Liberians; Muslim Refugees; Hmong; Somali Bantu; Bosnians; Haitians; Iraqis; Iraqi Kurds; Somalis; Afghans; Montagnards; Cubans).

Refugee Backgrounders include: Refugees from Syria; Refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Refugees from Darfur;Refugees from Iraq; Eritreans in Shimelba Refugee Camp; Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal; The Kunama; The 1972 Burundians; The Banyamulenge Tutsi

Cultural Diversity - A Guide for Health Professionals
The guide was developed for Queensland Health on the basis of research conducted by the Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, The University of Queensland, from November 1997 to April 1998.  It presents health and socio-cultural information on multicultural communities (including torture and trauma and issues for children, young people and women). It encourages health staff to actively explore cultural issues with patients and cautions against stereotyping. (Muslims from West Asia, Bosnian Muslims, Philippines, Cambodians, Samoans, Tongans, Chinese, Serbians, Croatians, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Greeks, Vietnamese, Hmong, Italians,& Latin Americans)

Stanford Ethno Med: Ethnic-Specific Geriatric Care in the United States
Stanford School of Medicine has developed an Ethnogeriatric Curriculum for 13 ethnicities (African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian Indian American, Chinese American, Filipino American, Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, Hispanic/Latino American, Hmong American, Japanese American, Korean American, Pakistani American, and Vietnamese American) to better prepare health professionals in providing culturally-competent care.  Intended to be used as a teaching curriculum, including culture specific information, case studies, and other tools and resources.

Maya Health Toolkit for Medical Providers
This toolkit identifies the major health care barriers between Maya and medical professionals, and provides resources to bridge gaps in communication. The toolkit includes: an overview of why a toolkit is needed for the Maya; a cultural and historical profile of the Maya that demonstrates how tradition and religious spirituality profoundly influence concepts of health; testimony and case examples that give insight into Maya views of health and the special situations they face in the United States; educational materials in audio and visual formats; comprehensive literature review on Maya health in the United States; and, an introduction to the Maya Interpreters Network. Links to diabetes and prenatal care presentations in four Mayan languages.